Resource investment problem with resource window constraint was considered in the context of aircraft mobile assembly line. A mathematical model was proposed to solve the problem with the objective of the total cost minimization of resource. Firstly, based on the characteristics of the resource window constraint, a constructive heuristic algorithm with non-critical activity priority decision rules was developed to solve small-scale problems. Secondly, a genetic algorithm, which was coded by a double-linked list including non-critical activity priority and critical activity start time and decoded by non-critical activity priority decision rules, was proposed for the large-scale problems. Finally, numerical experiments were carried out to compare the advantages and disadvantages between heuristic algorithm, genetic algorithm and CPLEX, and the effectiveness of the two proposed algorithms was proved.